Sahar (Malhausi) Thikana

Main Gate- Malhausi

Main Gate- Malhausi

The comparison of this Thikana can be done with that of the Raja of Banaras; the only difference is that the Taja of Banaras had a little bigger Kingdom. The Raja of Sahar had about 160 villages. Just like the Raja of Banaras who in the 18th century with the help of the previous Governor of Awadh (Oudh) Rustom Ali was able to accumulate a large chunks of land and his son was granted the title of Raja in the same manner Kuwar Sadan Singh JI Sengar with the help of Governor Almas Ali Khan and accomplice Raja Bara Mal was able to transfer hundreds of villages for the services rendered to the royal court. The King of Banaras was given the title of “His Highness” and declared an independent king (Ruling Prince) but the British government acted in a step motherly manner and gave a title of Raja to him.

The thikana was founded by one Sadan Singh who shared in the proprietary right to the village of Mau. “He made himself useful to the Oudh Governors[1], Almas Ali Khan and Raja Bara Mal, and through their influence and his own industry collected together the nucleus of a taluka just before the cession of the district to the British. Sadan Singh transferred his services to our earlier collectors, and for the aid rendered by him was not only confirmed in his possessions but also received considerable rewards.”[2]

During 1805 when the British Government was at war with Jaswant Rao Holkar, and “the exigencies of Lord Lake required money ‘at an hour’s warning’ Sadan Singh did good services both in giving advice to the district officers and in raising a loan.”[3] At this time “when the Collector was ordered to negotiate a loan with the utmost promptitude for the exigencies of the army in the field, Sadan Singh rendered essential aid, and between himself and Udai Chand of Kanauj, subscribed nearly a lakh of rupees to the loan. For these reasons, he was always a favourite with district authorities, and transmitted his estate almost intact to his son, Chandan Singh.”[4]

In the time of Chandan Singh, the taluka of Sahar shared the fate of the other talukas in the district, and was thus almost totally ruined. In order to understand the situation, it is essential to trace here briefly the history of the various settlements which were made by the Government from time to time during those days. “The first settlement was made for three years in 1803 by Mr. W.O. Salmon. The only particulars remaining with regards to it are very few and derived from later records. The great instruments in the assessment appear to have been the taluqdars.”[5] At this time “Sadan Singh of Sahar held about 150 villages paying nearly two lakhs of rupees.”[6] The second settlement was made in 1805-06. As regards Sahar, however, “the assessment of the first and the second settlement of the taluka was made at Rs 1,45,251, for 158 ¾ villages; this was raised at the third settlement to Rs 1,59,251, and at the fourth settlement to Rs 1,75,201.”[7] This last mentioned settlement was made under Regulation IX of 1812, which “prescribed a revision of the existing revenue on the principle of leaving to the proprietor a net income of ten per cent on the revenue, exclusive of charges of collection. This revenue was to remain fixed for ever in the case of those estates which ‘might be in a sufficiently improved state of cultivation to warrant the measures, and such terms as Government should deem fair and equitable’.”[8] In 1831, the area of the Sahar taluka “was reduced by 8 ½ villages, paying a revenue of Rs 12,899, by which the revenue of the taluka was reduced to Rs 1,62,301/-.”[9] It must be noted here that the Board of Commissioners in charge of the Revenue of the district were from the very beginning “not satisfied with the taluqdari arrangement, on the ground that the intervention of the taluqdar between the Government and the cultivators prevented the same amount of revenue being derived from each village, as would have been derived by direct engagements.”[10]

fair

We next come to the great famine of 1837-38. Which revolutionized the whole district, as from it dates the dismemberment of most of the old talukas which had been in existence since cession, and such a redistribution of rights in the property as may be fairly said to have changed the character of the proprietary body. The famine commenced by a falling off of the usual rainfall; in July and August 1837, hardly any rain fell. Though a few showers fell in September, the land remained untilled, and such was the emergency that Lord Auckland (the then Governor General of India) came up-country and assumed charge of the Government of these provinces on the 1st January, 1838.”[11]swords

As a natural result of this terrible famine, “cultivation decreased and tenants emigrated”[12] and “all the remaining parganahs became bankrupt.”[13] “In 1840, the outstanding balances amounted to over 15 lakhs of rupees.”[14] Or over one year revenue. As has been mentioned above “the Government of the time was strong against the talukdars,”[15] and “in spite of the utter impossibility of realising rents from the cultivators, of which the authorities were well aware, the talukdars were pressed for their revenue, and on their inability to pay, their estates were put up to auction.”[16] The result was to quote Mr. Crosthwaite, ‘Bidders there were none, but the Government in the talukdar’s rights for a mere song and gained their objects – the ruin of these large chieftains and dispersion of their influence and property,”[17] thus the large talukdars were ruined almost to a man.Darbar Set

The taluka of Sahar, which was one of the largest talukas in the district, also shared in the general ruin. As the result of the taluka “having passed through furnace of famine of 1837-38, the talukdars was utterly unable to recover the rent from his cultivators. Still Government, in order to carry out its anti-taluka policy, pressed for the arrears and bought the estate to auction in 1838 for an arrear of Rs 55,991. No purchaser appeared, and the right, title, and interest of Chandan Singh in 150¼ villages fell to Government for ten rupees.”[18]

The sale of the talukas, however, “says Mr Crosthwaits, “did not pay up the balances, and the next question was how to accomplish that. The difficulty was solved by offering the villages in settlement to the resident cultivators, who were, undoubtedly in Chandan Singh’s ilaka at any rate, the real proprietors, on condition of paying up the balances. By this means, the arrears were cleared off.”[19] As regards the taluka of Sahar, therefore, “the villages were then summarily settled with the residents in 1246 Fasli (1838-39 A.D.), at a progressive revenue, which in 1248 Fasli amounted to Rs 1,83,525/-. Several villages remained under direct management for want of farming offers; other broke down in 1247 Fasli. In which year the balance were very heavy, and would have been greater had not the revision of settlement inder Reg. IX of 1833 commenced when considerable reduction were made by Mr. Gubbins. There is little doubt but that the enhancements of the third and fourth settlements left less than one –third of the rental assets to the proprietor, but still the profits made by Chandan Singh were very large. Mr. Gubbins attributes the ultimate ruin of Chandan Singh ‘partly to his having divided his large estate among connections who enjoyed a large share of the profits but failed him in his hour of need, and partly to his having by his own profuse expenditure, by the great increase demanded from him at the fourth settlement, and by the loss sustained in the bad season of 1241 Fasli, and later years, became so inextricably involved as to compel him forestal the rents of the coming year to make good revenue of the past.’ He always paid his revenue with punctuality and managed his affairs so well that ‘he was generally reverenced and respected by all but his own tribe who could never forgive his sudden rise to power and authority over them.’”[20]dagger

Chandan Singh was succeeded by his sons, Chhatar Singh (the great grandfather of Lal Narain Singh) and Mahipal Singh.[21] Chhatar Singh was “one of the most respectable gentlemen of the district”[22].

The outbreak of the mutiny in the Etawah district was most sudden and unexpected. Elsewhere, perhaps, the shadow of the calamity may have preceded it and diffused a vague sense of insecurity and alarm; but in Etawah there was nothing but hopefulness and peace. The news of the outbreak of the Mutiny at Meerut reached Etawah through Agra on the 12th May, 1857. But, save few skirmishes with the rebels in the following days, the greater portion of the district remained comparatively calm; however, as danger was imminent, martial law was proclaimed in the district on May 27th.[23] Soon after, there was a serious rebellion in the Cawnpore and other districts, and Mr. Hume, the then Collector of the Etawah district, dispatched “all the best of his police officers with some trusty Zemindars to take possession of the neighbouring parganas of Sikandara, Rasulabad, and Dera- Mangalpur in Cawnpore.”[24] Lal Chhatar Singh of Sahar, was also sent along with them to Cawnpore districts and did excellent work there; meanwhile, “on the 16th of June news arrived of the mutiny and massacre at Gwailor.”[25] And “early on the morning of 17th June, accordingly, the Europeans assembled at Mr. Hume’s house, and after some consultations it was resolved to retire upon Agra,”[26] which they did. At this time, “Rao Jaswant Rao, Kunwar Chhatar Singh, and the remainder of the police that could be trusted were in Cawnpore district. There was therefore, no force in the district upon whom the European could rely.”[27] The city of Etawah was therefore at once plundered by the Grenadiers though, on the town’s people rising against them, they had finally to leave the city and move across the river. In the district there was no disturbance, and as according to Mr. Hume, “there was no latent disloyalty in the people”[28] the entire situation once more in a few days became tranquil.

Darbar Set-4

Darbar Set-4

In July, however, the peace of the district was again disturbed for the fourth time, when bodies of rebels attacked and plundered Phaphund and Lakhna. Another body of mutineers “made a dash at Bela, which they took; but the tehsildar had previously managed to remove the treasure and records to Chatar Singh’s fort at Sahar.”[29] the treasure and the records of the Bidhoonah parganah were long preserved in his fort. and “during the disturbances he sheltered Debe Purshaud, the Tehsildar and other Government servants.”[30]

“Early in August, owing to dissensions among the taluqdars regarding their respective jurisdictions, Mr. Hume drew up with the sanction of the Government, a detailed scheme assigning portions of the district with certain monthly stipends to each of the most respectable and competent taluqdars and tahsildars. Under this scheme, Phaphund and Bela were entrusted to the tahsildar, Lala Debe Pershad, assisted by Chhatar Singh of Sahar and Laik Singh of Harchandpur.”[31]Darbar Set-2

After the lapse of some time, the tranquillity of the situation in the district was again disturbed, and several bands of rebels under powerful leader rose up, and from October 1857 the district was once more involved in fighting them out. This continued till December when a large body of rebels from Farrukhabad invaded the district, and “anarchy once more took the place of order. In Bela, the tahsildar found himself unable to move out of Chhatar Singh’s fort at Sahar.”[32] Their triumph was cut short by the arrival of Brigadier Walpole’s column on the 25th of December, Which advanced through the rebellious areas and every where the mutineers melted away before the British force.

Tent

Tent

Early in January 1858, district once more became tranquil, except in Auraiya. In spite of a few risings here and there, the bulk of the district enjoyed comparative calmness during February and March. In April, an expedition was sent against the rebels in Auraiya which after some time succeeded in its object of putting down the rebellion in that portion of the district.old fort

About the end of April, the Rasulabad Tahsil in the Cawnpore district was again attacked by a large body of rebels. Lal Chhatar Singh of Sahar accompanied by some Zemindars of Cawnpore was engaged in defending the tahsil against the enemy, and they acted with such courage and firmness that their success was complete on the 25th April 1858, and the enemy having failed totally were put to flight. In May, the rebels in Auraiya again rose but the British forces, sent against them, having succeeded, after some action, in putting them down completely, the tranquillity of the district was once again restored, and the force returned to Etawah on June 2nd, 1858.

“On July 2nd, 1858, Mr. Hume fell ill and gave over charge of the district to Mr. G.E. Lance.”[33] Save a few risings again in Auraiya which were successfully put down from time to time, nothing of any great importance took place till December, 1858. On December 7, 1858, Firoz Shah, a powerful rebel from outside with several other rebel leaders and a very large body of mutineers invaded the district, burning, plundering and slaying indiscriminately, and attacked Bela and Sahar. At Sahar, Lal Chhatar Singh had given shelter to the Government officers, so it was resolved by Mr. Hume and others to advance and relieve the officials at Sahar. This was done, and Firoz Shah’s body of rebels was subsequently annihilated by General Napier, he himself having fled to the jungles of Malwa and Central India. “The Etawah district was never again troubles by any large body of mutineers.”[34]chatur 1863

“His excellent conduct has elicited the warmest encomiums from the Collector of his district, Mr. Hume.”[35] His character was, to quote Mr, Hume “And it was in his fort that the treasure and the records of the Bidhoona parganah were preserved and the officials found refuge.”[36] .They had also ‘a very high opinion of him as a Zemindar and a subject” and considered him to be “one of the very best native gentlemen in the district.”[38]

Lal Chhatar Singh, was granted “the proprietary right in five villages in the Etawah district assessed at Rs 2095/- per annum, and six villages in the Cawnpore district assessed at Rs 6443/- per annum.[39] This added to his estate a great deal, as the taluka having already suffered so much by reason of the various settlements and famines during the time of his father, Chandan Singh, as mentioned above, the estate in the hands of Chhatar Singh was by no means a considerable one, comprising only some villages, the chief of which was Sahar “noted for its pretentious mud fort (were the officials in the mutiny had found refuge) and for its having been former times the head of a mahal or fiscal subdivision corresponding to the modern perganah.”[40]chatur singh 1866

Chhatar Singh was also appointed by the Government as an Honorary Magistrate, he always used to take “a great interest in his work”[41] as an Honorary Magistrate, and rendered valuable assistance to the authorities in that capacity, as evidenced by their opinions about his work in several letters and testimonials.

Tej Singh 1866Chhatar Singh was succeeded by his son, Tej Singh, and Tej Singh was succeeded by his son Drigbijai Singh. He continued to manage the estate left by his father Tej Singh. In the meantime, the Malhausi estate, belonging to his uncle, Lokpal singh, which was in the possession of the latter’s widow, Rani Jas Kunwar, also fell by the right of inheritance into the hands of Drigbijai Singh, when the Rani died. This again served to add a good deal to the estate which was one of the largest and most important of talukas in the Etawah district. He at last succumbed to one of these attacks of his ill health to which he was so often subject during the later days of his advanced life, and breathed his last on the 15th of January 1921, and was succeeded by his son and heir, Lal Narain Singh.

Lal Narain Singh

Lal Narain Singh

Lal Narain Singh enjoyed the esteem and respect of the authorities who had always a high opinion of his services and character.[42] In recognition of his loyalty and approved merits, he had the honour of being presented with a certificate of loyalty by the Command of His Excellency the Governor-General in the name of Her most Gracious Majesty, Empress of India, on January 1st 1877.[43]He established the oldest Junior College in Etawah District.

Narain 1936

narain 1944Narain 1946Relations of Lal Narain Singh

The last Zamindar and head of the Sengar clan was Raja Lokendra Sah, O.B.E. of Jagammanpur, in the Jalaun district, and it is certain that the headquarters of the clan had been established for centuries at Jagammanpur. This family was connected with the Sengars of the Etawah district. The Raja owned “46 Jagir villages with a rental of Rs 72,751.10. On which he payed a perpetual quit rent of Rs 4,764/- and thirteen Zamindari whole villages and shares in five others, paying revenue of Rs 11,115/-.”[1] The title of Raja is hereditary and dates from 1100 A.D.; it was recognized by the Peshwa in 1717, and has always been acknowledged by the British Government. The Raja exercised the powers of an Honorary Magistrate within the limits of his estate.

Another representative of the clan was Raja Makund Singh of Hardoi,[2] in the district of Jalaun. The title of this Raja was also hereditary, and had been retained by the head of the family since 1095 A.D. and was also recognized by the British Government.

The other connected Sengar families of importance in the district of Etawah itself, among whom may be mentioned Rao Chat Singh of Bikra,[3] Rao Jodha Singh of Kakaotu,[4] both of whom are hereditary title holders from very ancient times, and their titles have all along been acknowledged by the Mugal Emperor and subsequently by the British Government, as such. Raja Raghubir Singh was an Honorary Magistrate of Ruru[5] in the Etawah District also belongs to the Sengar clan.  The title of Raja had been held by the house for several centuries, and had been admitted as prescriptive by the British Government.

Another very important Sengar family in the district of Etawah was that of Bhareh. The head of the family, Raja Niranjan Singh[6]owned 32 whole villages and three mahals, paying revenue of Rs. 29,193/- in Etawah. The title of Raja had been borne by the chieftains of the family since very ancient times, and had been admitted by the British Government since the cession of the district in 1801.

Besides the Sengar families given above, there were few representative of this clan in other portions of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, who held land to a considerable extent. Among these may be mentioned Thakur Balbhadar Singh of Kanta[7] in Unao district. He owned 9 villages and 2 pattis in the district and payed a revenue of Rs 11,862/- . He was a talukdar of Oudh, and was also a Government Darbari.

The Honorable Raja Kushalpal Singh of Kotla[8], who was the head of the Jadaun Rajputs of the province of Agra, stood in relation as an uncle to Lal Narain Singh. The Raja owned of a considerable estate in the United Province, comprising 61 mahals paying Rs. 53,311 as land revenue in the district of Agra, 16 mahals paying Rs. 20,052 as land revenue in the Mainpuri district, and 4 mahals paying Rs. 6,972 in the Etah district. Raja Kushalpal Singh, was a member of the Legislative Assembly and had long been a member of both the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils. He was also an Honorary Magistrate.

Raja Jagmohan Singh of Lahar, district Bhind, who was the head of the Kachhwaha clan of Rajputs in the Gwalior State, and Kunwar  Balbhaddar Singh of Waziroura, in the Agra district, belonging to the Jadon clan of Rajputs, were both related as uncles to Lal Narain Singh. They held considerable landed property, and the latter was also a Civil Surgeon in the United Provinces. Thakur Hulas Singh[9] Rais and the head of the Gaur of Makrandpur Kanjiri, in the Cawnpore district, stood in relation as maternal uncle to Lal Narain Singh. He also held a considerable estate in the Cawnpore district, and payed annual revenue of Ra 7,630/- to the British Government.

Kunwar Kulbhan Chandraji of Raghunathpur, in Sheopur district of Gwalior State, who was a member of the family of the Ruling Chiefs of Karauli, was a brother-in-law to Lal Narayan Singh. The family held considerable landed property in the Gwalior and Karauli States. Rao Padam Singh of Malgaon[10] in the Cawnpore district, belonging to the Gaur clan of Rajputs and Diwan Chet Singh of Parna[11] in the Agra district, belonging to the Bhadauria clan of Rajputs, both of whom held hereditary titles from the British Government, were also related to Lal Narain Singh.

Raja Hukm Tej Partap Singh of Pratabner[12], holds considerable estate in the Etawah and Mainpuri districts, was also related to Lal Narain Singh. The title of Raja is of very great antiquity, and has been acknowledged as hereditary by the British Government. The Raja is the head of the great Chauhan Clan of Rajputs. Thakur Tara Singh, Rais and Zemindar of Bhartua, in the Aligarh district, belonging to the Solanki clan of Rajputs, were also very nearly related to Lal Narain Singh. The British Government appointed him as an Honorary Magistrate.

There were  various other important families holding considerable estates in the United Provinces and elsewhere to which Lal Narain Singh’s family was related. Amongst these may be mentioned the Gaur Rajputs of Khanpur Dilwal in Cawnpore district, the taluqdar of Gopal Khera in the Lucknow district, the Raja of Baroda in the Sheopur district of Gwalior State, the Chauhan Zamindars of Ibrahimpur in the Hardoi district, the Janwar Thakurs of Fatehpur Chaurasi in the Unao district and the Bais Zemindars of Kare Bojh in the Etawah district, all of whom are connected with the family of Lal Narain Singh by important relationships.

Data-aLal Harvansh Singh

Lal Narain Singh was succeeded by his son Lal Harvansh Singh alias Lal Bhuwneshweri Prashad Singh. He was born on 1st October 1938.  By 1947 the British had left the country and India had become independent. Being a visionary he upgraded the Junior College first to High School and then Inter College having science. He not only persuaded agricultural business but also established one of the largest poultry operation  in Northern India during the 1964 to 1970. He was a member of the Animal Husbandry Board and also an advisor to Rani Shever and military farms. He was invited by Doordarshan (All India TV) talk shows, Krishi  Darshan programs Dhruv-mama0011and All India Radio. He worked in developing the local strain of layer birds to improve the production and the breed that he created were among the top three highest egg producing bird in the country during the Random sample test held at Hasarghatta,  Bangalore in the year 1971 to 1973. He worked as the Director for Health and Agriculture project at Rabbani School, Gwalior and reclaimed Usar land (waste land) with sulphuric acid overnight. More than 50 acres of land which was usar was reclaimed and plantations were done. The school received the “Indira Maitrey Award” for the achievements. He published a book “Saral Kheti” which has been given great reviews. The ones to be mentioned are by Dr. V.P. Shukla, Coordinator Extension Services, Jawahar Nehru Krishi University (M.P.), K. Das Rahi, Professor and Head of the Department, Chandera Shekhar Agriculture University.Data2 001 He founded an NGO “Lokarpan” in the year 1996 to work for the development of the  rural community. He believed that if opportunities are made available in the village the people will not migrate to the cities. He believed in the empowerment of women and hence worked for the upliftment of women. With the effort of Lokarpan emphasis was given to “Education of Girl Child” and  “Safe Motherhood and Child Survival”.  For his work in the field of Health, the Planning Commission in their report of Uttar Pradesh in their  Medical and Public Health report, (Chapter XI) in 2002 mentions about his NGOs work .

 “  Civil Society Intervention in the Health Sector of U.P.

12. In Uttar Pradesh NGOs seem to be playing a very significant role in the Health Sector of the State. Across the state in almost all the economic regions of the state NGOs have made some significant intervention. Some of the important NGOs which are active in the health sector are The Hunger Project, Lokarpan, Sakhi, Manav Seva Sansthan etc. It needs to be mentioned that NGO movement received a significant boost after the formation of SIFPSA (State Innovations in Family Planning Services Project Agency). Other important agencies which are making a significant contribution in terms of institutional financial support are CRS North India, CARE and Prema etc.

13. The impact of NGO intervention can be gauged from the fact that in the area where Lokarpan is working it is found that:

 Around 81% of the mothers have been provided Anti Natal Care (ANC) coverage . In the NGOs non-intervention area the coverage was only 54%.

 89% of the children were vaccinated. However, in the non-intervention area only 65.5% are vaccinated.

 Interestingly, the ratio between ANMs visit in the NGO and non-NGO area is 3.58: 2.27. The implications are very significant The ANM is a government functionary, her frequency of visit in the NGO area is found to be almost 35% better than the non-NGO area.”

 Relations of Lal Harvansh Singh

Lal Harvansh Singh was married to Shanta Singh, in Kulharia, Aara District of Bihar. His wife’s  relatives are in Thikana Paho and Khajurgaon in District Rae Barelli, Thikana Shahmau, District Sultanpur, Thikana Baroowa, District Gaya in Bihar, Royal family of Rathu, District Ranchi, Jharkhand.

Mohit

Mohit Sengar (1963-1986)

He was blessed with three daughters and two sons. His eldest daughter Seema Singh married Ajay Pratap Singh, of Galgalah, District Unnao in Uttar Pradesh.  She is blessed with a son Rakshit P. Singh and daughter Richa Singh. His son Rohit Sengar married Ujjwala Gaur and is blessed with a son Dhruv Sengar and daughter Ishita Singh. His youngest daughter Sabina Singh married Derek  Smithwick and is blessed with a son Rohan Varqa Smithwick and daughter Dia Smithwick.  His sister Jaswant Kumari was married to Col. Sumer Singhji of Thikhana Chittora, District Tonk, Rajasthan. She was blessed with a son Col. Naval Singh Rajawat. His mother was from Thikana Baler, District Swaimadhopur, Rajasthan. His mothers relatives are in Thikana Gondishanker and Borkhedha in Madhya Pradesh, Thikana Kacchnavda, district Kota in Rajasthan, Thikana. Bharey in Uttar Pradesh and Nepalganj were his relatives. Lal Harvansh Singh passed away on November 6th, 1999 and was succeeded by Rohit Sengar who converted the Layer operation into Broiler Operation run under a private limited company M/s Sengar’s Agro Farm Pvt.data 002 Ltd. The family has been able to establish its operation at Malhausi and Kanpur. He has established a Rice Mill with a 1.5 ton/hour capacity and has been able to establish online business under Sengar’s Business Prodigies Pvt. Ltd. the comapy has entered into internet e-commerce website www.freewayeshop.com, bidding website www.freewaybidding.com and mobile and DTH recharge website www.freewayrecharge.com.

References (Part I)

[1]  As the district of Etawah was under the Government of Oudh from 1774 to 1801, so during the time of Sadan Singh the administration of the district was in the hands of Almas Ali Khan.

[2] Vide Gazetteer N.W.P. Vol. IV, Agra Division, Part I, Page, 300, 1876 Edition.

[3] Vide Gazetteer N.W.P. Vol. IV, Agra Division, Part I, Page, 317, 1876 Edition

[4] Vide Gazetteer N.W.P. Vol. IV, Agra Division, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition

[5] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 96, 1911 Edition.

[6] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 96, 1911 Edition.

[7] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition.

[8] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 99, 1911 Edition.

[9] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition.

[10] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 98, 1911 Edition.

[11] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 266, 1876 Edition. (also see U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 44, 1911 Edition).

[12] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[13] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[14] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[15] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[16] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 101, 1911 Edition.

[17] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[18] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition.

[19] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[20] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition.

[21] Vide Pedigree of the family, Appendix

[22] Vide Selt’s testimonial, dated March 31, 1865, Appendix

[23] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 152, 1911 Edition.

[24] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 152, 1911 Edition.

[25] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 153, 1911 Edition.

[26] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 153, 1911 Edition.

[27] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 153, 1911 Edition.

[28] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 154, 1911 Edition.

[29] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 155, 1911 Edition.

[30] Vide testimonial of Mr. G.E. Lance, officiating Collector of Etawah, dated October 27, 1958

[31]Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 155, 1911 Edition.

[32] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 157, 1911 Edition.

[33] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 65, 1911 Edition.

[34] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 171, 1911 Edition.

[35] Vide testimonial from C,B, Tharnhill Esq. Officiating Commissioner, dated August 20, 1859; Appendix Page,

[36] Vide testimonial from Mr. A.O. Hume O.B. Collector of Etawah, dated April 5, 1861: Appendix Page

[37] Vide testimonial from J.H. Balten, Esq., Judge, Cawnpore, dated March 4, 1858; Appendix Page

[38] Vide testimonial from Collector of Etawah, dated the 5th February, 1863; Appendix Page

[39] Vide Sunnuds, Appendix Pages

[40] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer, Vol. IV, Part I, Page 301, 1876 Edition.

[41] Vide testimonial from Collector of Etawah, dated February 5, 1863; Appendix Page

[42] Vide testimonial from Magistrate, Etawah, dated January 23, 1878, Appendix Page

[43] Vide Appendix Page

References (Part II)

[1] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 101, 1917 Edition, and U.P. Gazetteer Vol. XXV. Page, 73, 1909 Edition.

[2] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 107, 1917 Edition.

[3] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 73, 1917 Edition.

[4] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 71, 1917 Edition.

[5] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 66, 1917 Edition.

[6] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 64, 1917 Edition.

[7] Vide List of Taluqdars, No. 14, Page,6, 1903 Edition.

[8] Vide Manual of Titles U,P, Page, 30, 1917 Edition.

[9] Vide U.P. Gazetteer Vol. XIX Page, 131, 1909 Edition

[10] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 78, 1917 Edition.

[11] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 33, 1917 Edition.

[12] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 61, 1917 Edition.

Rooroo (Phaphund) Thikana

Rooroo (Phaphund) Thikana

The royal family of Rooroo (Ruru) controlled the region of Phaphund. The King Phuphan Dev established Phaphund and till around 1748 B.C this region remained under the control of Ruru and they were also known as Raja of Phaphund. During the battle at Badayun, Raja Shrikushal Singh Ju Deo was injured in 1748 B.C. and documental proof of Rooroo’s control on the region of Phaphund can be read in the Hindi poems compilation of famous poet Dev Ji in his compilation “Kushal Vilas”. This poem was written in praise of Kushal Singh Ji who ruled Phaphund till 1775 B.C. At that time the Moguls started showing their influence in this region and Bagash Nawab Mohammad Khan of Farrukhabad was the governor of Etawah. He started acting as an independent ruler and the Moguls sent Raja Jai Singh of Jaipur to crush him in 1741 B.C. After the return of Jai Singh from Etawah, Bagash Nawab again took control of Etawah till 1748 B.C. Thereafter till 1750 B.C. the Nawab of Awadh and Nawab of Farrukhabad fought among themselves for this region. In 1751 the Nawab of Awadh with the permission of the Mogul emperor took help from the Maratha’s and the King of Bharatpur, Surajmal Jat and attacked the Bagash Pathans of Farrukhabad. There was a treaty signed between Awadh Nawab and Nawab of Farrukhabad in 1742 B.C. Ahmed Khan the Nawab of Farrukhabad paid the Maratha’s compensation between 30 to 80 lakhs rupees. The Maratha’s took over 16 Pargana’s of Farrukhabad in which Etawah was also include and till 1761 the Maratha’s of Jalaun Subedar Govind Rao Pundit had control in the region. In 1761 the Marathas were defeated in the battle of Panapit by Ahmad Shah Durani and Durani gave this region to Hafiz Rehmat Khan’s son Inayat Khan. In 1766 B.C. Malhar Rao attacked Phaphund but due to the defense laid down by the Rohelas he was forced to cross the Yamuna but by 1771 B.C. the Marathas again took control of Etawah region. In 1774 B.C. the minister of Nawab Awadh, Saja’ud Daula again took control of this region.

The incidences happened during the period of Raja Kushal Singh Ju Deo. The kingdom suffered heavily due to these fights. He had taken side with the Nawab of Farrukhabad and hence suffered during the reign of the Marathas and Awadh. Govind Rao Pundits once attacked Rooroo. The Maharaja Jagammanpur who was under the Pesewa also came with his army to Rooroo. In the night he meets the Ruru ruler and advised him to leave the fort his family. He took his advice and shifted to the fort at Rueyah. The Marathas destroyed his fort at Rooroo with cannons. At that time Rooroo kingdom was spread towards the southern side of Rooroo till Auraiya which was 11 Kose from Rooroo. In the northern side of his empire spread across Gandakh till Rueyah. The eastern region of his empire spread till Kainjari in Kanpur District. The western region spread till Gopiyaganj which was 11 Kose from Rooroo. The held the title of Rahise Azam. The kingdom was plundered by the Ruhelas and the Marathas. In 1774 the region came under the control of Awadh and peace came to this region for some time. In 1775 maharaja Kushal Singh Ji died without any issue.

As per the prevailing custom a successor was adopted from the brothers or uncle of the king’s family. The younger brother Shri Lal Samar Singh Ji great grandson Lal Hemunchul Singh was adopted by the Rani Shrichandershivan Ju Devi and the second queen Rani Shribhadaurin Ju. The succession was recognized by the tribe. At the age of five the land management was transferred in his name.

In the Alamdari of the Nawab this region was controlled by the Raja Bhagmal of Bithur under the Nadirshahi. During this time Sadan Singh Sengar (Sahar) and his son Chandan Singh took in position a large portion of this empire and what was left was taken by the Nawab. Due to this reason there was great enormity between the two families. In the mean time Sadan Singh was able to build his empire which spread to 160 villages which were acquired from Ruru and other nearby rulers. Chandan Singh tried many a time to uproot the ruler of but did not succeed.

In 1801 B.C. the British took charge of the region and the Raja Lal Hemunchul Singh has been for about 20 to 22 years on the throne. The British changed the land revenue management after one year of their succession. The King had only 34 Villages with revenue of Rs 15668 per year under his position and the rest were taken by Sadan Singh of Sahar.

As per the Etawah Gazetteer 1911

 “The founder of this family was one Sadan Singh, a petty sharer in the proprietary right of the village of Mau. He made himself useful to the Oudh Governor, Almas Ali Khan, and his favourite, Raja Baramal; and through their influence and his own industry collected the nucleus of a taluqa, just before the cession of the district to the British. He next transferred his services to our earlier collectors, and for the aid rendered by him was not only confirmed in his possessions, but also received a considerable reward.”

 As per the Regional Board of Revenue letter written to the Sub Collector of Bela in 28th January 1824

 “9th. The tribe of Singar Rajpoots are said to have crossed the Jumna under three principal leaders- a Raja, a Rau and a Raout- and established the Raj of Rooroo, which comprehended nearly the whole of the ancient pergana of Phaphund. Chundun Singh is of the tribe led by the Raja, but not of the family.”

“10th. The greater portion of this tract of land now forms the Talooqdaree of Chundun Singh. In endeavouring to ascertain from the villagers the traditionary history of the tribe, I found all to invariable express the most unqualified dissatisfaction at present situation of Raja Hemunchul Singh of Rooroo, whose cause seems to be interwoven with the question of the Talooqdaree as a portion of the old Raj.’

In the mean time Rani Shribhadaurin Ju had some misunderstanding with his adopted son Raja Hemunchul Singh. In the absence of the Raja she increased the revenue of 40 villages to Rs 50339 and got them transferred in her name with the land revenue board. She also claimed the income of three years that was in control of the raja. The Raja had to pay as he lost the case in absence of any agreement on the sharing of revenue in the Civil Court ( Ranee Bhudorin versus Hemunchal Singh, 1st Macnaghten, 59)

In the next land settlement Rani Shribhadaurin Ju got 37 villages with revenue of Rs 53111. Raja Hemunchul Singh filed a case against The Rani and Chandan Singh in the Regional Court on 22nd Dec 1810. Chandan Singh got himself pardoned saying that he is just a under tenant. The Regional court ruled against the King and rejected the claim of the Raja being adopted. The Rani died in 1815 and the British on 26th September 1816 again gave Raja Hemunchul Singh the right to the lands. This was challenged by Raja Kushal Singh Ju Deo’s illegitimate son Kuwar Gunsham Singh and Kuwar Ratan Singh who was Rani Shrichandershivan Ju Devi daughter’s son. The Regional Court ruled in favor of Kuwar Gunsham on 14th July 1817. The ownership was transferred to Gunsham Singh of Khavaswal as per the judgment of the court in 1837. All further efforts made by the Raja were rejected by subsequent courts.

 The third member of the Board of Revenue wrote in 28th January 1828 to the sub collector at Bela

“No flaw in the lineal descent of Hemunchul Singh nor indeed an invalidity to his claim to inheritance by blood or by adoption by Rani Shribhadaurin Ju seems to exist, as all consider him the rightful head or Raja. In the other hand, the bastard, Gunsham Singh, is rejected by the whole tribe, who decline to eat with him, declaring him to be in the strictest sense of base blood. Oomed Bhartee , the leading Goshaeen in this part, will not, I hear, visit him and even Chundun Singh, who has the immediate management of the Rooroo, regards Gunsham Singh in respect to social or domestic communication with the same sentiment as the other Singhas, for he will not eat with him.”

Mr. M.R. Gubbins, Settlement Officer Etawah in his letter reference number 339 dated 9th December 1840 to Mr. R.N.C. Hamilton, Commissioner Agra wrote

” 6th. Hemunchul Singh, great grandson of Sumur Singh, the brother of Raja Khosal Singh vide marginal note, is universally regarded by the Sengar’s as the rightful heir of the Raj, and is familiarly styled among them”The Rajah.” His adoption by the Ranees Chunder Bunsin and Bhadaurin after death of Raja Khoshul Singh is affirmed by all. Further, it is stated that he was in possession of the Raj at the time of the cession”.

 rooroo

In 1840 land management of Etawah District again took place and Master M.R. Gabbins, Officer In charge of the arrangement of Land Management vide his letter reference no 339 dated 9th December 1840 wrote to the Commissioner of Agra division about the Rooroo Kingdom the gist of the letter are as such.

“There are two issues that need your attention. First in which two villages we agree for the ownership and acquisition of the villagers and second for the rest of the area who should be considered the heir and owner of Raja Kushal Deo Singh. As per the work done till now we have accepted the ownership of villagers of 31 Mauza’s with a revenue of Rs 32093 and the rest 30 villages with a revenue of Rs 21061 have been identified as property of Rooro Kingdom. The suggestion that I am giving are as per the acceptance and consent of the subjects. There are three persons who are the claimant to this kingdom. One is Kuwar Adhar Singh who is Raja Kushal Singh Ju Deo’s grandson of the daughter and another Raja Aman Singh who is the younger brother, his royal house is separate, and Lal Hemunchul Singh whose right are the most. But if we do not consider his right yet he stands second in the rights. Second is Puhup Singh son of Gunsham Singh who truly is a bastard and the whole tribe shuns him.. His father has won the possession by a decree of civil court but his tribe refuses to eat with him. Therefore it is my opinion that as per the tradition of the country he does not have any rights. The tribe considers Hemunchul Singh born of the royal family and adopted by the widows of Raja Kushal Singh. At the time of cession by the government and during the first land revenue arrangement it was in his possession. During the second revenue arrangement due to his absence Rani Bhadaurinju got her name written. After the death of the queen he was considered the zamindar and given possession. Based on these proofs I recommend that Shri Raja Himanshu Singh be given the ownership. In 1828, Master Nunehume third member board of revenue inquiry also this was found to be the wish of the subjects. This pargana under the land revenue arrangement is possessed by Sengar rajput and Raja saheb Rooro is the crowned king. That is the reason why this part of the country is called Sengarath. It is the wish of the people that the Rooro kingdom be given to Himunchul Singhji.”

Further, Govind Singh from Lakhpeda who also further petitioned to the government to make late Himunchuls son Raja Fateh Singh the successor of Rooro state based on his petition H M Elite, Secretary of board of revenue North West Pradesh on 9th February 1841 reference no. 41 wrote to Agra Commissioner saying

“supposing it to be established that no better title can be made out to these thirty villages the proper course, the board remarks, is to fix a suitable Juma upon them for the whole term of settlement and then to let them to the best advantage for a term of fifteen years, leaving the surplus at the disposal of the Government. This surplus can, if the Government see fit, be assigned to the heir of Khoshul Singh during his minority, and after the termination of the leases, he may engage for the Mauzahs on the best terms obtainable. “

Certificate of Merit given by Alexander Shank the collector of Etawah

 “This is to certify that Rajah Futah Sing h of Rooroo, zillah Etawah, has frequently visited me, he is of a respectable family, an intelligent youth, and was, I hear, himself willing and ready to give all the assistance in his power with matters connected with the public service, and I have much pleasure in giving him this testimony of my estimation.”

Etawah (signed Alex Shank, Collector)                                          

 1st March, 1845

During the time of Gaddar, the District collector of Etawah was not happy with the Rajas role and wanted to file a case against him. In 1858 after the Raja Fateh Singhs death his son Raghunath Singh was considered the title holder.

On 13th November 1917, the collector of Etawah H Nevill wrote

” Raja Raghubir Singh of Ruru is one of the three leading Darbaris of this district and is one of the three acknowledged heads of the great Sengar clan of Rajputs. His social position is un-exceptionable , but unfortunately his means are too small to enable him to live upto his position. Almost the whole of the extensive property owned by his forefathers was confiscated after the Mutiny. I have always been of the opinion that the treatment then extended to the Rajas grandfather was somewhat harsh. His kinsman, of Samain, was unquestionably a rebel, but is seems that this man dominated the then Raja and involved him in his own fate. The Rajas father was appointed a Tahsildar, and served the Government well : a fact which is itself contradicts in some measure, the theory that the Raja was actively disloyal. I should be very glad if an opportunity arose of rectifying what I believe to have been an error of judgment. Raja Raghubir Singh is a loyal gentleman and during the present was has worked hard in the matter of recruiting for the Army. This has been no easy task for the reason that for many years the Sengars have not taken generally to military service. Through his efforts a marked change has taken place and the Sengars have done very well in the 7th and other Rajput regiments. I hope he will continue his exertions and that his work will receive suitable acknowledgement.

Etawah

13th November, 1917                                                   

 signed : H. Nevill, Collector

 

Letter written by the Lieutenant Governor for his services rendered during the world war

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

Lucknow

11th February 1918

 My DEAR RAJA SAHIB,

 ********* I write a few lines of farewell. I have enjoyed the pleasure of your acquaintance and I know the great influence for good which you exercise in your district. In recent years I have had particular reasons to be grateful to you for your efforts in recruiting. You have stirred up the old military spirit among the Sengar Rajputs of your brotherhood, and you have sent a very valuable contribution to the Indian Army. I trust that your honour will increase and that alll success and happiness will attend you, and I remain.

Yours Sincere Friend

(Sd.) James S Meston

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR

Of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.

Raja Raghubir Singh of Ruru.

The Government of India wrote for the contribution of Raja Raghubir singh for his contribution in the great world war.

“This sanad is presented to Raja Raghubir Singh of Ruru, Etawah District, by order of His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor General of India, in recognition of services rendered to the Indian Army during the Great War and as a mark of approbation.

       

DELHI                                                                  (Sd.) A. H. BINGLEY

Dated the 26th February 1918                                 MAJOR-GENERAL

Secretary to the Government of India 

Army Department.”

 

In 1919 the Government appointed the Raja of Ruru as Honorary Magistrate and was granted a rebate of Rs 1000 on yearly land revenue for his life time.

Sarvwan Thikana

Sarvwan Thikana

Shri Dewan Sahib were considered among the Ruling Chief. The place was called Sarwan because this place was established by a brahman known as Anand on the day of “Sravan” in 1298 AD. The town had a mixed population of brahman’s, thakurs and baniya’s along with a Gardhi (Mud fort) The Gardhi was built some were near 1305 AD by Raja Sarang Dev ju. The Income of the Dewan of sarwan was Rs 15000/- and had to pay Revenue of Rs 9000 to the British Government. (“Geography District Jalaun”- Government Press, Prayag 1884 AD). During 1853 AD the kingdom had a total income of Rs 28000/- and only paid a revenue of Rs 3526/-. This reduction in the income of the ruling chief were due to the government policies which in the end lead to the downfall of this kingdom. The government also took away the title of Dewan as we do not find any mention in the Manual of Titles but were addressed as “Gardhibandh Thakur” (Thakur with an enclosed mud fort). The last Dewan before independence was Shri Dewan Maharaj Singh Ju Deo.

Hardoi Thikana

Hardoi Thikana

The Thikana of Hardoi in the olden times had hundreds of villages but were lost in the fight with Chatersal Bundela’s Thereinafter Shrimant Peshwa  gave Raja Gokul Singh Ju 27 villages free from taxes (nankara) , later on the subedar of Jalaun Govend Rao Pandit put taxes on these villages and due to non payment of dues took away all the villages except two villages. What was left was bought to ruins due to the British Government policies and most of the area of old kingdom was lost by the family. In 1914-18 AD during the world war the British Government recognized his services that Chote Lal Sahib gave in recruitment of solders  and is mentioned in the Gazetteer.

Bhikra Thikana

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Bhikra Thikana

In the Regional Manual of Titles (Year 1917 B.C.) we find written ” The title of Rao has land been held by the head of the family and has been recognised by the British Government ********* When the district was ceded the zamindars of Bhikra owned a fair amount of land, but late years this has been greatly reduced, so that only a few acres remain.”

Sengars Rule in Shri Lanka

Sengars Rule in Shri Lanka

As per the vanshavali (Pedigree trees) and folklore we come to know about the kingdom of Sengar’s in Raddh country were Maharaja Vijay (Vijayrishi, Bhoj, Bhojraj, Vijayraj which are the alias names) went to Singhaldweep (Singaldweep, Sankeldweep) and established an independent kingdom. The history of Shrilanka (Celon) verifies it. This historical event can be traced  to the time of Mahabharata. During the time of Mahabharata war and the rule of Shyaka’s in Magadha the historical facts of the Sengar tribe if found can be traced in the history of Sri lanka. In the Purana we do not find any Pedigree tree of many  Kings of that time. We find the family tree of our Gautam brothers (Akshakuwao) which help us in tracing the time period between the Sengar Kingdoms at Radh Desh and Gautam Kingdom in Madhya desh. As per the tree of the Akshakuwao Kings and the history of Sengar Kings in  Shrilanka (Celone)  the family tree in being given below.

Genealogy of Sengar’s in Lanka

As per the history of  Lanka we find written that the King of “Ladh” (Lal desh) Singhbahu’s elder son Vijay was cruel to his subjects. The subject revolted and the king had a choice either to kill his son or banish him from the kingdom. The king chose to banish him from the kingdom and hence Vijay with 700 men along with their family were made to sit on three ships and were left in the sea. Vijay reached Lanka along with his men and settled their.

In those days Lanka was ruled by “Yaksha” and “Naga” tribes. Lanka’s Western and Northern part was known as “Nag Dweep” and their King was Kedridiya. Their were two other Naga King who lived in the hilly terrains and fought among them selves. The central part of the island was controlled by the “Yaksha” and their capital was “Lanka”. Vijay along with his men landed on the western region at Ladan. They were very tiered and laid down for rest. When they woke up they realized the color mud on their hands and kept its name “Tambraparan” or “Tambravaran”. The island later took this name. The Greek scholars have written Lanka’s name as “Taprobane”

Vijay and his men  saw a dog and followed it to habitation. A “Yakshani” dressed as a sage was spinning near a beautiful lake.. His men wanted to take bath in the lake but the “Yakshani’ took them to a cave. When Vijay reached the lake he could not locate his men and realized that the “Yakshani” had something to do with this. He defeated the Yakshani and hence was able to free his men from the cave. The Yakshani  fell in love with him and they got married. Her name was Kuberni. With her help Vijay defeated many yaksha kings and established his kingdom. He made his capital at “Tumradnuar” near Patlam Bandar. His men spread in the island and under the leadership if Vijay established small kingdoms. The important ones that need mention are Anuradhapur, Uptissnagar,  and Vijitpur. His men wanted to declare Vijay as the Maharaja but he refused to accept the title till they were able to find a suitable kshatriya princess.

The King of Madura (Mathura of the south) from the Paranay offered his daughter for marriage to Vijay. Many of his men also married with the various ruling class family of Paranay. After the marriage Vijay declared himself as the Maharaja Dheraj and the first Sengar to become the ruler of Lanka “Lankaadhipati”.

The first wife Kuberni  left him and joined her tribe men with her children. The Yaksha killed her but her children escaped. These children established their rule in various parts of the island and southern part of India and are known as “Veddas”.

Being the son of Maharaja Singhbahu, Lanka was renamed as Singhaldweep and his men as Singhal. Vijay had landed in 543 B.C on the same day when Buddha attained Maha Nirvana.  He ruled lanka for 38 years. Before his death he called for his brother Sumitra (Sumit) from Radd. Before his message reached Radd his father Singhbahu had passed away and his second son Sumitrs was made the ruler of Radd. In the meantime in 505 B.C Maharaja Vijay died. Maharaja Sumitra decided to send his third son Panduvas in his place. He left for Lanka with 32 other royal family members via sea route. In the mean time the kingdom of Lanka was governed by Uptisis who was a chieftain for one year. On the arrival of Panduvas, Uptisis handed over the throne to him. Uncle of Buddha “Amrittodan” offered his daughter “Bhadrakatyani” for marriage. The marriage and coronation of Maharaja Paranduvas took place at the same time.

The king Virudhak of Kokas  attacked the Shakyas (Ruling family of Mahatma Buddha) and destroyed their kingdom in 490 B.C. Bhadrakatyani’s father took shelter in lanka and was given a kingdom to rule. He had seven sons. Six of his sons were Ramgorand, Ruhud, Dighaya, Uruvele, Anuradh and Vijetkam. They are also hence considered and the ruling chiefs of Lanka.

Maharaja Panduvas died in 474 B.C. He had ten sons and one daughter Chinta. His elder son Abhay succeeded the throne.  Chinta married Dighaya’s son Gaminu and their son Pandukabhay.

 In various historical records we find mention of Rajput rulers marrying (Rathore’s and Chauhan’s) with princess from Singhal Vansh. Padmani the Queen of Chittor was also from Singhal Vansh (Chapter 6- Tod  “History of Mewar in Rajasthan”)

Sengar’s: Tribe and their origin

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Sengar’s: Tribe and their origin

Of the numerous clans of this great race, there are thirty-six which are termed Royal clans having directly descended from the ancient ruling princes of India. A list of these for the sake of convenience has been given in the appendix.[1] Amongst these royal clans the Sengars occupy a high position. They are considered practically the equals of Kachhwahas and intermarry with them. The Sengars claim descent from on Singi or Sringi Rishi, a celebrated holy man, “who married the daughter of a Gaharwar Raja of Kannauj. From one of his sons came the Gautams of Argal in Fatehpur, and to another, Padam, the Sengar trace their origin. The traditions of the clan then interposes a period extending over some 135 generations, during which the clan emigrated first to Cevlon, thence to Malwa, and finally settled at Kanar[2] in Jalaun, were was born about 1065 A.D. one Bisukh Deo, or Sukh Deo, the founder of the fortunes of the Sengar house.” He married Deo Kali, daughter of Jaichand, the last Rathaur Raja of Kanauj, and after his defeat by Shahabuddin Ghori in the year 1193 A.D. the power of the Sengar increased and the river Basindh was renamed Sengar in their honor.

There are one or two other traditions as regard the origin of this clan, but the one given above is mostly taken to be the correct one, as is also corroborated by the descriptions about the origin of this clan in Cooke’s Tribes and Casts of N.W.P, Census Report N.W.P, Manual of Titles of U.P., and the U.P. Gazetteer for the Etawah district.

After the fall of the kingdom of Kanauj, the Sengars under Bisukh Deo occupied the Eastern parganas of Etawah.[3] “Bisukh Deo was succeeded by Asajit, and he by Madan Deo; next came Ratahra Deo, and then Singi Deo. The last had two wives; the one a Chauhanin of Etawa, by whom had Marjad Deo, the ancestor of the Bhareh Rajas, and the other a Gaurni (Gaur lady) by whom he had six sons, from whom were descended the Sengar Rajas of Patti Nakkat, Puri Dhar, Ruru, the Rao of Kakaotu and the Rawat of Kursi.”[4] “At any rate, the Sengar occupation of the south-eastern part of the district may with approximate accuracy be dated in the early part of 12th century A.D., when, like the Chauhans, the clan drove out the Meos and took possession of the tract.”[5]

The community of the Sengar in the district of Jalaun, the contiguous portions of Gwalior and the neighboring tract of Etawah beyond the Jumna is a large one. In Etawah district alone, “the number about 7,201 persons” and “are probably the earliest Rajputs settlers in the district. Their stronghold is Bidhuna, and after that Auraiya.”[6]

[1] Compare Todd’s Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I.

[2] Kannar is now marked by a large deserted Khera about two miles from the Jumna, and not far from the present site of Jagamanpur in Jalaun. The Raja of Jagamanpur is the head of the Sengars and was once known as the Raja of Kanar-Khera. Kanar gave its name to a pargana in the time of Akbar.

  1. Vide U.P. Gazetteer Vol. XI. Page, 68, 1911 Edition

Cooke’s Tribes and Castes of N.W.P. Vol. IV Page, 312, 1896 Edition; also vide Census Report N.W.P. I App. 81, and Manual of Titles U.P., 1917, Edition. Page, 64.

[3] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 64, 1917 Edition.

[4] Vide Gazetteer N.W.P. Vol. IV, Part, I (Agra Division) Page, 276, 1876 Edition.

[5] Vide U.P. Gazetteer Vol. XI, Page,69, 1911 Edition

[6] Vide U.P. Gazetteer Vol. XI, Page,68, 1911 Edition

Catalogue of the 36 Royal clans of the Rajput race 

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THE ROYAL CLANS OF RAJPUTS

  1. Surya
  2. Chandra
  3. Grahilote or Gehlote
  4. Yadu or Yadawa
  5. Tuar or Taunar
  6. Rathore
  7. Cushwaha or Kachhwaha
  8. Chahuman or Chauhan
  9. Chalook or Solanki
  10. Pritihara or Parihar
  11. Chowura or Chaura
  12. Tak or Takshac
  13. Jit
  14. Hun or Hoon
  15. Catti
  16. Balla
  17. Jhala or macwahana
  18. Jaitwa or Jetwa or Camari
  19. Gohil
  20. Sarwya or Sariaspa
  21. Silar or Sular
  22. Dabi
  23. Gor or Gaur
  24. Dor or Doda
  25. Gherwal
  26. Birgoojur
  27. Sengar
  28. Sekerwal
  29. Byce or Bais
  30. Dahia
  31. Joyha
  32. Mohil
  33. Nicoompa
  34. Rajpati
  35. Dahirya
  36. Dahima

*Taken from Todd’s Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan