Rooroo (Phaphund) Thikana
The royal family of Rooroo (Ruru) controlled the region of Phaphund. The King Phuphan Dev established Phaphund and till around 1748 B.C this region remained under the control of Ruru and they were also known as Raja of Phaphund. During the battle at Badayun, Raja Shrikushal Singh Ju Deo was injured in 1748 B.C. and documental proof of Rooroo’s control on the region of Phaphund can be read in the Hindi poems compilation of famous poet Dev Ji in his compilation “Kushal Vilas”. This poem was written in praise of Kushal Singh Ji who ruled Phaphund till 1775 B.C. At that time the Moguls started showing their influence in this region and Bagash Nawab Mohammad Khan of Farrukhabad was the governor of Etawah. He started acting as an independent ruler and the Moguls sent Raja Jai Singh of Jaipur to crush him in 1741 B.C. After the return of Jai Singh from Etawah, Bagash Nawab again took control of Etawah till 1748 B.C. Thereafter till 1750 B.C. the Nawab of Awadh and Nawab of Farrukhabad fought among themselves for this region. In 1751 the Nawab of Awadh with the permission of the Mogul emperor took help from the Maratha’s and the King of Bharatpur, Surajmal Jat and attacked the Bagash Pathans of Farrukhabad. There was a treaty signed between Awadh Nawab and Nawab of Farrukhabad in 1742 B.C. Ahmed Khan the Nawab of Farrukhabad paid the Maratha’s compensation between 30 to 80 lakhs rupees. The Maratha’s took over 16 Pargana’s of Farrukhabad in which Etawah was also include and till 1761 the Maratha’s of Jalaun Subedar Govind Rao Pundit had control in the region. In 1761 the Marathas were defeated in the battle of Panapit by Ahmad Shah Durani and Durani gave this region to Hafiz Rehmat Khan’s son Inayat Khan. In 1766 B.C. Malhar Rao attacked Phaphund but due to the defense laid down by the Rohelas he was forced to cross the Yamuna but by 1771 B.C. the Marathas again took control of Etawah region. In 1774 B.C. the minister of Nawab Awadh, Saja’ud Daula again took control of this region.
The incidences happened during the period of Raja Kushal Singh Ju Deo. The kingdom suffered heavily due to these fights. He had taken side with the Nawab of Farrukhabad and hence suffered during the reign of the Marathas and Awadh. Govind Rao Pundits once attacked Rooroo. The Maharaja Jagammanpur who was under the Pesewa also came with his army to Rooroo. In the night he meets the Ruru ruler and advised him to leave the fort his family. He took his advice and shifted to the fort at Rueyah. The Marathas destroyed his fort at Rooroo with cannons. At that time Rooroo kingdom was spread towards the southern side of Rooroo till Auraiya which was 11 Kose from Rooroo. In the northern side of his empire spread across Gandakh till Rueyah. The eastern region of his empire spread till Kainjari in Kanpur District. The western region spread till Gopiyaganj which was 11 Kose from Rooroo. The held the title of Rahise Azam. The kingdom was plundered by the Ruhelas and the Marathas. In 1774 the region came under the control of Awadh and peace came to this region for some time. In 1775 maharaja Kushal Singh Ji died without any issue.
As per the prevailing custom a successor was adopted from the brothers or uncle of the king’s family. The younger brother Shri Lal Samar Singh Ji great grandson Lal Hemunchul Singh was adopted by the Rani Shrichandershivan Ju Devi and the second queen Rani Shribhadaurin Ju. The succession was recognized by the tribe. At the age of five the land management was transferred in his name.
In the Alamdari of the Nawab this region was controlled by the Raja Bhagmal of Bithur under the Nadirshahi. During this time Sadan Singh Sengar (Sahar) and his son Chandan Singh took in position a large portion of this empire and what was left was taken by the Nawab. Due to this reason there was great enormity between the two families. In the mean time Sadan Singh was able to build his empire which spread to 160 villages which were acquired from Ruru and other nearby rulers. Chandan Singh tried many a time to uproot the ruler of but did not succeed.
In 1801 B.C. the British took charge of the region and the Raja Lal Hemunchul Singh has been for about 20 to 22 years on the throne. The British changed the land revenue management after one year of their succession. The King had only 34 Villages with revenue of Rs 15668 per year under his position and the rest were taken by Sadan Singh of Sahar.
As per the Etawah Gazetteer 1911
“The founder of this family was one Sadan Singh, a petty sharer in the proprietary right of the village of Mau. He made himself useful to the Oudh Governor, Almas Ali Khan, and his favourite, Raja Baramal; and through their influence and his own industry collected the nucleus of a taluqa, just before the cession of the district to the British. He next transferred his services to our earlier collectors, and for the aid rendered by him was not only confirmed in his possessions, but also received a considerable reward.”
As per the Regional Board of Revenue letter written to the Sub Collector of Bela in 28th January 1824
“9th. The tribe of Singar Rajpoots are said to have crossed the Jumna under three principal leaders- a Raja, a Rau and a Raout- and established the Raj of Rooroo, which comprehended nearly the whole of the ancient pergana of Phaphund. Chundun Singh is of the tribe led by the Raja, but not of the family.”
“10th. The greater portion of this tract of land now forms the Talooqdaree of Chundun Singh. In endeavouring to ascertain from the villagers the traditionary history of the tribe, I found all to invariable express the most unqualified dissatisfaction at present situation of Raja Hemunchul Singh of Rooroo, whose cause seems to be interwoven with the question of the Talooqdaree as a portion of the old Raj.’
In the mean time Rani Shribhadaurin Ju had some misunderstanding with his adopted son Raja Hemunchul Singh. In the absence of the Raja she increased the revenue of 40 villages to Rs 50339 and got them transferred in her name with the land revenue board. She also claimed the income of three years that was in control of the raja. The Raja had to pay as he lost the case in absence of any agreement on the sharing of revenue in the Civil Court ( Ranee Bhudorin versus Hemunchal Singh, 1st Macnaghten, 59)
In the next land settlement Rani Shribhadaurin Ju got 37 villages with revenue of Rs 53111. Raja Hemunchul Singh filed a case against The Rani and Chandan Singh in the Regional Court on 22nd Dec 1810. Chandan Singh got himself pardoned saying that he is just a under tenant. The Regional court ruled against the King and rejected the claim of the Raja being adopted. The Rani died in 1815 and the British on 26th September 1816 again gave Raja Hemunchul Singh the right to the lands. This was challenged by Raja Kushal Singh Ju Deo’s illegitimate son Kuwar Gunsham Singh and Kuwar Ratan Singh who was Rani Shrichandershivan Ju Devi daughter’s son. The Regional Court ruled in favor of Kuwar Gunsham on 14th July 1817. The ownership was transferred to Gunsham Singh of Khavaswal as per the judgment of the court in 1837. All further efforts made by the Raja were rejected by subsequent courts.
The third member of the Board of Revenue wrote in 28th January 1828 to the sub collector at Bela
“No flaw in the lineal descent of Hemunchul Singh nor indeed an invalidity to his claim to inheritance by blood or by adoption by Rani Shribhadaurin Ju seems to exist, as all consider him the rightful head or Raja. In the other hand, the bastard, Gunsham Singh, is rejected by the whole tribe, who decline to eat with him, declaring him to be in the strictest sense of base blood. Oomed Bhartee , the leading Goshaeen in this part, will not, I hear, visit him and even Chundun Singh, who has the immediate management of the Rooroo, regards Gunsham Singh in respect to social or domestic communication with the same sentiment as the other Singhas, for he will not eat with him.”
Mr. M.R. Gubbins, Settlement Officer Etawah in his letter reference number 339 dated 9th December 1840 to Mr. R.N.C. Hamilton, Commissioner Agra wrote
” 6th. Hemunchul Singh, great grandson of Sumur Singh, the brother of Raja Khosal Singh vide marginal note, is universally regarded by the Sengar’s as the rightful heir of the Raj, and is familiarly styled among them”The Rajah.” His adoption by the Ranees Chunder Bunsin and Bhadaurin after death of Raja Khoshul Singh is affirmed by all. Further, it is stated that he was in possession of the Raj at the time of the cession”.
In 1840 land management of Etawah District again took place and Master M.R. Gabbins, Officer In charge of the arrangement of Land Management vide his letter reference no 339 dated 9th December 1840 wrote to the Commissioner of Agra division about the Rooroo Kingdom the gist of the letter are as such.
“There are two issues that need your attention. First in which two villages we agree for the ownership and acquisition of the villagers and second for the rest of the area who should be considered the heir and owner of Raja Kushal Deo Singh. As per the work done till now we have accepted the ownership of villagers of 31 Mauza’s with a revenue of Rs 32093 and the rest 30 villages with a revenue of Rs 21061 have been identified as property of Rooro Kingdom. The suggestion that I am giving are as per the acceptance and consent of the subjects. There are three persons who are the claimant to this kingdom. One is Kuwar Adhar Singh who is Raja Kushal Singh Ju Deo’s grandson of the daughter and another Raja Aman Singh who is the younger brother, his royal house is separate, and Lal Hemunchul Singh whose right are the most. But if we do not consider his right yet he stands second in the rights. Second is Puhup Singh son of Gunsham Singh who truly is a bastard and the whole tribe shuns him.. His father has won the possession by a decree of civil court but his tribe refuses to eat with him. Therefore it is my opinion that as per the tradition of the country he does not have any rights. The tribe considers Hemunchul Singh born of the royal family and adopted by the widows of Raja Kushal Singh. At the time of cession by the government and during the first land revenue arrangement it was in his possession. During the second revenue arrangement due to his absence Rani Bhadaurinju got her name written. After the death of the queen he was considered the zamindar and given possession. Based on these proofs I recommend that Shri Raja Himanshu Singh be given the ownership. In 1828, Master Nunehume third member board of revenue inquiry also this was found to be the wish of the subjects. This pargana under the land revenue arrangement is possessed by Sengar rajput and Raja saheb Rooro is the crowned king. That is the reason why this part of the country is called Sengarath. It is the wish of the people that the Rooro kingdom be given to Himunchul Singhji.”
Further, Govind Singh from Lakhpeda who also further petitioned to the government to make late Himunchuls son Raja Fateh Singh the successor of Rooro state based on his petition H M Elite, Secretary of board of revenue North West Pradesh on 9th February 1841 reference no. 41 wrote to Agra Commissioner saying
“supposing it to be established that no better title can be made out to these thirty villages the proper course, the board remarks, is to fix a suitable Juma upon them for the whole term of settlement and then to let them to the best advantage for a term of fifteen years, leaving the surplus at the disposal of the Government. This surplus can, if the Government see fit, be assigned to the heir of Khoshul Singh during his minority, and after the termination of the leases, he may engage for the Mauzahs on the best terms obtainable. “
Certificate of Merit given by Alexander Shank the collector of Etawah
“This is to certify that Rajah Futah Sing h of Rooroo, zillah Etawah, has frequently visited me, he is of a respectable family, an intelligent youth, and was, I hear, himself willing and ready to give all the assistance in his power with matters connected with the public service, and I have much pleasure in giving him this testimony of my estimation.”
Etawah (signed Alex Shank, Collector)
1st March, 1845
During the time of Gaddar, the District collector of Etawah was not happy with the Rajas role and wanted to file a case against him. In 1858 after the Raja Fateh Singhs death his son Raghunath Singh was considered the title holder.
On 13th November 1917, the collector of Etawah H Nevill wrote
” Raja Raghubir Singh of Ruru is one of the three leading Darbaris of this district and is one of the three acknowledged heads of the great Sengar clan of Rajputs. His social position is un-exceptionable , but unfortunately his means are too small to enable him to live upto his position. Almost the whole of the extensive property owned by his forefathers was confiscated after the Mutiny. I have always been of the opinion that the treatment then extended to the Rajas grandfather was somewhat harsh. His kinsman, of Samain, was unquestionably a rebel, but is seems that this man dominated the then Raja and involved him in his own fate. The Rajas father was appointed a Tahsildar, and served the Government well : a fact which is itself contradicts in some measure, the theory that the Raja was actively disloyal. I should be very glad if an opportunity arose of rectifying what I believe to have been an error of judgment. Raja Raghubir Singh is a loyal gentleman and during the present was has worked hard in the matter of recruiting for the Army. This has been no easy task for the reason that for many years the Sengars have not taken generally to military service. Through his efforts a marked change has taken place and the Sengars have done very well in the 7th and other Rajput regiments. I hope he will continue his exertions and that his work will receive suitable acknowledgement.
13th November, 1917
signed : H. Nevill, Collector
Letter written by the Lieutenant Governor for his services rendered during the world war
11th February 1918
My DEAR RAJA SAHIB,
********* I write a few lines of farewell. I have enjoyed the pleasure of your acquaintance and I know the great influence for good which you exercise in your district. In recent years I have had particular reasons to be grateful to you for your efforts in recruiting. You have stirred up the old military spirit among the Sengar Rajputs of your brotherhood, and you have sent a very valuable contribution to the Indian Army. I trust that your honour will increase and that alll success and happiness will attend you, and I remain.
Yours Sincere Friend
(Sd.) James S Meston
Of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
Raja Raghubir Singh of Ruru.
The Government of India wrote for the contribution of Raja Raghubir singh for his contribution in the great world war.
“This sanad is presented to Raja Raghubir Singh of Ruru, Etawah District, by order of His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor General of India, in recognition of services rendered to the Indian Army during the Great War and as a mark of approbation.
DELHI (Sd.) A. H. BINGLEY
Dated the 26th February 1918 MAJOR-GENERAL
Secretary to the Government of India
In 1919 the Government appointed the Raja of Ruru as Honorary Magistrate and was granted a rebate of Rs 1000 on yearly land revenue for his life time.