Main Gate- Malhausi

Main Gate- Malhausi

The comparison of this Thikana can be done with that of the Raja of Banaras; the only difference is that the Taja of Banaras had a little bigger Kingdom. The Raja of Sahar had about 160 villages. Just like the Raja of Banaras who in the 18th century with the help of the previous Governor of Awadh (Oudh) Rustom Ali was able to accumulate a large chunks of land and his son was granted the title of Raja in the same manner Kuwar Sadan Singh JI Sengar with the help of Governor Almas Ali Khan and accomplice Raja Bara Mal was able to transfer hundreds of villages for the services rendered to the royal court. The King of Banaras was given the title of “His Highness” and declared an independent king (Ruling Prince) but the British government acted in a step motherly manner and gave a title of Raja to him.

The thikana was founded by one Sadan Singh who shared in the proprietary right to the village of Mau. “He made himself useful to the Oudh Governors[1], Almas Ali Khan and Raja Bara Mal, and through their influence and his own industry collected together the nucleus of a taluka just before the cession of the district to the British. Sadan Singh transferred his services to our earlier collectors, and for the aid rendered by him was not only confirmed in his possessions but also received considerable rewards.”[2]

During 1805 when the British Government was at war with Jaswant Rao Holkar, and “the exigencies of Lord Lake required money ‘at an hour’s warning’ Sadan Singh did good services both in giving advice to the district officers and in raising a loan.”[3] At this time “when the Collector was ordered to negotiate a loan with the utmost promptitude for the exigencies of the army in the field, Sadan Singh rendered essential aid, and between himself and Udai Chand of Kanauj, subscribed nearly a lakh of rupees to the loan. For these reasons, he was always a favourite with district authorities, and transmitted his estate almost intact to his son, Chandan Singh.”[4]

In the time of Chandan Singh, the taluka of Sahar shared the fate of the other talukas in the district, and was thus almost totally ruined. In order to understand the situation, it is essential to trace here briefly the history of the various settlements which were made by the Government from time to time during those days. “The first settlement was made for three years in 1803 by Mr. W.O. Salmon. The only particulars remaining with regards to it are very few and derived from later records. The great instruments in the assessment appear to have been the taluqdars.”[5] At this time “Sadan Singh of Sahar held about 150 villages paying nearly two lakhs of rupees.”[6] The second settlement was made in 1805-06. As regards Sahar, however, “the assessment of the first and the second settlement of the taluka was made at Rs 1,45,251, for 158 ¾ villages; this was raised at the third settlement to Rs 1,59,251, and at the fourth settlement to Rs 1,75,201.”[7] This last mentioned settlement was made under Regulation IX of 1812, which “prescribed a revision of the existing revenue on the principle of leaving to the proprietor a net income of ten per cent on the revenue, exclusive of charges of collection. This revenue was to remain fixed for ever in the case of those estates which ‘might be in a sufficiently improved state of cultivation to warrant the measures, and such terms as Government should deem fair and equitable’.”[8] In 1831, the area of the Sahar taluka “was reduced by 8 ½ villages, paying a revenue of Rs 12,899, by which the revenue of the taluka was reduced to Rs 1,62,301/-.”[9] It must be noted here that the Board of Commissioners in charge of the Revenue of the district were from the very beginning “not satisfied with the taluqdari arrangement, on the ground that the intervention of the taluqdar between the Government and the cultivators prevented the same amount of revenue being derived from each village, as would have been derived by direct engagements.”[10]


We next come to the great famine of 1837-38. Which revolutionized the whole district, as from it dates the dismemberment of most of the old talukas which had been in existence since cession, and such a redistribution of rights in the property as may be fairly said to have changed the character of the proprietary body. The famine commenced by a falling off of the usual rainfall; in July and August 1837, hardly any rain fell. Though a few showers fell in September, the land remained untilled, and such was the emergency that Lord Auckland (the then Governor General of India) came up-country and assumed charge of the Government of these provinces on the 1st January, 1838.”[11]swords

As a natural result of this terrible famine, “cultivation decreased and tenants emigrated”[12] and “all the remaining parganahs became bankrupt.”[13] “In 1840, the outstanding balances amounted to over 15 lakhs of rupees.”[14] Or over one year revenue. As has been mentioned above “the Government of the time was strong against the talukdars,”[15] and “in spite of the utter impossibility of realising rents from the cultivators, of which the authorities were well aware, the talukdars were pressed for their revenue, and on their inability to pay, their estates were put up to auction.”[16] The result was to quote Mr. Crosthwaite, ‘Bidders there were none, but the Government in the talukdar’s rights for a mere song and gained their objects – the ruin of these large chieftains and dispersion of their influence and property,”[17] thus the large talukdars were ruined almost to a man.Darbar Set

The taluka of Sahar, which was one of the largest talukas in the district, also shared in the general ruin. As the result of the taluka “having passed through furnace of famine of 1837-38, the talukdars was utterly unable to recover the rent from his cultivators. Still Government, in order to carry out its anti-taluka policy, pressed for the arrears and bought the estate to auction in 1838 for an arrear of Rs 55,991. No purchaser appeared, and the right, title, and interest of Chandan Singh in 150¼ villages fell to Government for ten rupees.”[18]

The sale of the talukas, however, “says Mr Crosthwaits, “did not pay up the balances, and the next question was how to accomplish that. The difficulty was solved by offering the villages in settlement to the resident cultivators, who were, undoubtedly in Chandan Singh’s ilaka at any rate, the real proprietors, on condition of paying up the balances. By this means, the arrears were cleared off.”[19] As regards the taluka of Sahar, therefore, “the villages were then summarily settled with the residents in 1246 Fasli (1838-39 A.D.), at a progressive revenue, which in 1248 Fasli amounted to Rs 1,83,525/-. Several villages remained under direct management for want of farming offers; other broke down in 1247 Fasli. In which year the balance were very heavy, and would have been greater had not the revision of settlement inder Reg. IX of 1833 commenced when considerable reduction were made by Mr. Gubbins. There is little doubt but that the enhancements of the third and fourth settlements left less than one –third of the rental assets to the proprietor, but still the profits made by Chandan Singh were very large. Mr. Gubbins attributes the ultimate ruin of Chandan Singh ‘partly to his having divided his large estate among connections who enjoyed a large share of the profits but failed him in his hour of need, and partly to his having by his own profuse expenditure, by the great increase demanded from him at the fourth settlement, and by the loss sustained in the bad season of 1241 Fasli, and later years, became so inextricably involved as to compel him forestal the rents of the coming year to make good revenue of the past.’ He always paid his revenue with punctuality and managed his affairs so well that ‘he was generally reverenced and respected by all but his own tribe who could never forgive his sudden rise to power and authority over them.’”[20]dagger

Chandan Singh was succeeded by his sons, Chhatar Singh (the great grandfather of Lal Narain Singh) and Mahipal Singh.[21] Chhatar Singh was “one of the most respectable gentlemen of the district”[22].

The outbreak of the mutiny in the Etawah district was most sudden and unexpected. Elsewhere, perhaps, the shadow of the calamity may have preceded it and diffused a vague sense of insecurity and alarm; but in Etawah there was nothing but hopefulness and peace. The news of the outbreak of the Mutiny at Meerut reached Etawah through Agra on the 12th May, 1857. But, save few skirmishes with the rebels in the following days, the greater portion of the district remained comparatively calm; however, as danger was imminent, martial law was proclaimed in the district on May 27th.[23] Soon after, there was a serious rebellion in the Cawnpore and other districts, and Mr. Hume, the then Collector of the Etawah district, dispatched “all the best of his police officers with some trusty Zemindars to take possession of the neighbouring parganas of Sikandara, Rasulabad, and Dera- Mangalpur in Cawnpore.”[24] Lal Chhatar Singh of Sahar, was also sent along with them to Cawnpore districts and did excellent work there; meanwhile, “on the 16th of June news arrived of the mutiny and massacre at Gwailor.”[25] And “early on the morning of 17th June, accordingly, the Europeans assembled at Mr. Hume’s house, and after some consultations it was resolved to retire upon Agra,”[26] which they did. At this time, “Rao Jaswant Rao, Kunwar Chhatar Singh, and the remainder of the police that could be trusted were in Cawnpore district. There was therefore, no force in the district upon whom the European could rely.”[27] The city of Etawah was therefore at once plundered by the Grenadiers though, on the town’s people rising against them, they had finally to leave the city and move across the river. In the district there was no disturbance, and as according to Mr. Hume, “there was no latent disloyalty in the people”[28] the entire situation once more in a few days became tranquil.

Darbar Set-4

Darbar Set-4

In July, however, the peace of the district was again disturbed for the fourth time, when bodies of rebels attacked and plundered Phaphund and Lakhna. Another body of mutineers “made a dash at Bela, which they took; but the tehsildar had previously managed to remove the treasure and records to Chatar Singh’s fort at Sahar.”[29] the treasure and the records of the Bidhoonah parganah were long preserved in his fort. and “during the disturbances he sheltered Debe Purshaud, the Tehsildar and other Government servants.”[30]

“Early in August, owing to dissensions among the taluqdars regarding their respective jurisdictions, Mr. Hume drew up with the sanction of the Government, a detailed scheme assigning portions of the district with certain monthly stipends to each of the most respectable and competent taluqdars and tahsildars. Under this scheme, Phaphund and Bela were entrusted to the tahsildar, Lala Debe Pershad, assisted by Chhatar Singh of Sahar and Laik Singh of Harchandpur.”[31]Darbar Set-2

After the lapse of some time, the tranquillity of the situation in the district was again disturbed, and several bands of rebels under powerful leader rose up, and from October 1857 the district was once more involved in fighting them out. This continued till December when a large body of rebels from Farrukhabad invaded the district, and “anarchy once more took the place of order. In Bela, the tahsildar found himself unable to move out of Chhatar Singh’s fort at Sahar.”[32] Their triumph was cut short by the arrival of Brigadier Walpole’s column on the 25th of December, Which advanced through the rebellious areas and every where the mutineers melted away before the British force.



Early in January 1858, district once more became tranquil, except in Auraiya. In spite of a few risings here and there, the bulk of the district enjoyed comparative calmness during February and March. In April, an expedition was sent against the rebels in Auraiya which after some time succeeded in its object of putting down the rebellion in that portion of the district.old fort

About the end of April, the Rasulabad Tahsil in the Cawnpore district was again attacked by a large body of rebels. Lal Chhatar Singh of Sahar accompanied by some Zemindars of Cawnpore was engaged in defending the tahsil against the enemy, and they acted with such courage and firmness that their success was complete on the 25th April 1858, and the enemy having failed totally were put to flight. In May, the rebels in Auraiya again rose but the British forces, sent against them, having succeeded, after some action, in putting them down completely, the tranquillity of the district was once again restored, and the force returned to Etawah on June 2nd, 1858.

“On July 2nd, 1858, Mr. Hume fell ill and gave over charge of the district to Mr. G.E. Lance.”[33] Save a few risings again in Auraiya which were successfully put down from time to time, nothing of any great importance took place till December, 1858. On December 7, 1858, Firoz Shah, a powerful rebel from outside with several other rebel leaders and a very large body of mutineers invaded the district, burning, plundering and slaying indiscriminately, and attacked Bela and Sahar. At Sahar, Lal Chhatar Singh had given shelter to the Government officers, so it was resolved by Mr. Hume and others to advance and relieve the officials at Sahar. This was done, and Firoz Shah’s body of rebels was subsequently annihilated by General Napier, he himself having fled to the jungles of Malwa and Central India. “The Etawah district was never again troubles by any large body of mutineers.”[34]chatur 1863

“His excellent conduct has elicited the warmest encomiums from the Collector of his district, Mr. Hume.”[35] His character was, to quote Mr, Hume “And it was in his fort that the treasure and the records of the Bidhoona parganah were preserved and the officials found refuge.”[36] .They had also ‘a very high opinion of him as a Zemindar and a subject” and considered him to be “one of the very best native gentlemen in the district.”[38]

Lal Chhatar Singh, was granted “the proprietary right in five villages in the Etawah district assessed at Rs 2095/- per annum, and six villages in the Cawnpore district assessed at Rs 6443/- per annum.[39] This added to his estate a great deal, as the taluka having already suffered so much by reason of the various settlements and famines during the time of his father, Chandan Singh, as mentioned above, the estate in the hands of Chhatar Singh was by no means a considerable one, comprising only some villages, the chief of which was Sahar “noted for its pretentious mud fort (were the officials in the mutiny had found refuge) and for its having been former times the head of a mahal or fiscal subdivision corresponding to the modern perganah.”[40]chatur singh 1866

Chhatar Singh was also appointed by the Government as an Honorary Magistrate, he always used to take “a great interest in his work”[41] as an Honorary Magistrate, and rendered valuable assistance to the authorities in that capacity, as evidenced by their opinions about his work in several letters and testimonials.

Tej Singh 1866Chhatar Singh was succeeded by his son, Tej Singh, and Tej Singh was succeeded by his son Drigbijai Singh. He continued to manage the estate left by his father Tej Singh. In the meantime, the Malhausi estate, belonging to his uncle, Lokpal singh, which was in the possession of the latter’s widow, Rani Jas Kunwar, also fell by the right of inheritance into the hands of Drigbijai Singh, when the Rani died. This again served to add a good deal to the estate which was one of the largest and most important of talukas in the Etawah district. He at last succumbed to one of these attacks of his ill health to which he was so often subject during the later days of his advanced life, and breathed his last on the 15th of January 1921, and was succeeded by his son and heir, Lal Narain Singh.

Lal Narain Singh

Lal Narain Singh

Lal Narain Singh enjoyed the esteem and respect of the authorities who had always a high opinion of his services and character.[42] In recognition of his loyalty and approved merits, he had the honour of being presented with a certificate of loyalty by the Command of His Excellency the Governor-General in the name of Her most Gracious Majesty, Empress of India, on January 1st 1877.[43]He established the oldest Junior College in Etawah District.

Narain 1936

narain 1944Narain 1946Relations of Lal Narain Singh

The last Zamindar and head of the Sengar clan was Raja Lokendra Sah, O.B.E. of Jagammanpur, in the Jalaun district, and it is certain that the headquarters of the clan had been established for centuries at Jagammanpur. This family was connected with the Sengars of the Etawah district. The Raja owned “46 Jagir villages with a rental of Rs 72,751.10. On which he payed a perpetual quit rent of Rs 4,764/- and thirteen Zamindari whole villages and shares in five others, paying revenue of Rs 11,115/-.”[1] The title of Raja is hereditary and dates from 1100 A.D.; it was recognized by the Peshwa in 1717, and has always been acknowledged by the British Government. The Raja exercised the powers of an Honorary Magistrate within the limits of his estate.

Another representative of the clan was Raja Makund Singh of Hardoi,[2] in the district of Jalaun. The title of this Raja was also hereditary, and had been retained by the head of the family since 1095 A.D. and was also recognized by the British Government.

The other connected Sengar families of importance in the district of Etawah itself, among whom may be mentioned Rao Chat Singh of Bikra,[3] Rao Jodha Singh of Kakaotu,[4] both of whom are hereditary title holders from very ancient times, and their titles have all along been acknowledged by the Mugal Emperor and subsequently by the British Government, as such. Raja Raghubir Singh was an Honorary Magistrate of Ruru[5] in the Etawah District also belongs to the Sengar clan.  The title of Raja had been held by the house for several centuries, and had been admitted as prescriptive by the British Government.

Another very important Sengar family in the district of Etawah was that of Bhareh. The head of the family, Raja Niranjan Singh[6]owned 32 whole villages and three mahals, paying revenue of Rs. 29,193/- in Etawah. The title of Raja had been borne by the chieftains of the family since very ancient times, and had been admitted by the British Government since the cession of the district in 1801.

Besides the Sengar families given above, there were few representative of this clan in other portions of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, who held land to a considerable extent. Among these may be mentioned Thakur Balbhadar Singh of Kanta[7] in Unao district. He owned 9 villages and 2 pattis in the district and payed a revenue of Rs 11,862/- . He was a talukdar of Oudh, and was also a Government Darbari.

The Honorable Raja Kushalpal Singh of Kotla[8], who was the head of the Jadaun Rajputs of the province of Agra, stood in relation as an uncle to Lal Narain Singh. The Raja owned of a considerable estate in the United Province, comprising 61 mahals paying Rs. 53,311 as land revenue in the district of Agra, 16 mahals paying Rs. 20,052 as land revenue in the Mainpuri district, and 4 mahals paying Rs. 6,972 in the Etah district. Raja Kushalpal Singh, was a member of the Legislative Assembly and had long been a member of both the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils. He was also an Honorary Magistrate.

Raja Jagmohan Singh of Lahar, district Bhind, who was the head of the Kachhwaha clan of Rajputs in the Gwalior State, and Kunwar  Balbhaddar Singh of Waziroura, in the Agra district, belonging to the Jadon clan of Rajputs, were both related as uncles to Lal Narain Singh. They held considerable landed property, and the latter was also a Civil Surgeon in the United Provinces. Thakur Hulas Singh[9] Rais and the head of the Gaur of Makrandpur Kanjiri, in the Cawnpore district, stood in relation as maternal uncle to Lal Narain Singh. He also held a considerable estate in the Cawnpore district, and payed annual revenue of Ra 7,630/- to the British Government.

Kunwar Kulbhan Chandraji of Raghunathpur, in Sheopur district of Gwalior State, who was a member of the family of the Ruling Chiefs of Karauli, was a brother-in-law to Lal Narayan Singh. The family held considerable landed property in the Gwalior and Karauli States. Rao Padam Singh of Malgaon[10] in the Cawnpore district, belonging to the Gaur clan of Rajputs and Diwan Chet Singh of Parna[11] in the Agra district, belonging to the Bhadauria clan of Rajputs, both of whom held hereditary titles from the British Government, were also related to Lal Narain Singh.

Raja Hukm Tej Partap Singh of Pratabner[12], holds considerable estate in the Etawah and Mainpuri districts, was also related to Lal Narain Singh. The title of Raja is of very great antiquity, and has been acknowledged as hereditary by the British Government. The Raja is the head of the great Chauhan Clan of Rajputs. Thakur Tara Singh, Rais and Zemindar of Bhartua, in the Aligarh district, belonging to the Solanki clan of Rajputs, were also very nearly related to Lal Narain Singh. The British Government appointed him as an Honorary Magistrate.

There were  various other important families holding considerable estates in the United Provinces and elsewhere to which Lal Narain Singh’s family was related. Amongst these may be mentioned the Gaur Rajputs of Khanpur Dilwal in Cawnpore district, the taluqdar of Gopal Khera in the Lucknow district, the Raja of Baroda in the Sheopur district of Gwalior State, the Chauhan Zamindars of Ibrahimpur in the Hardoi district, the Janwar Thakurs of Fatehpur Chaurasi in the Unao district and the Bais Zemindars of Kare Bojh in the Etawah district, all of whom are connected with the family of Lal Narain Singh by important relationships.

Data-aLal Harvansh Singh

Lal Narain Singh was succeeded by his son Lal Harvansh Singh alias Lal Bhuwneshweri Prashad Singh. He was born on 1st October 1938.  By 1947 the British had left the country and India had become independent. Being a visionary he upgraded the Junior College first to High School and then Inter College having science. He not only persuaded agricultural business but also established one of the largest poultry operation  in Northern India during the 1964 to 1970. He was a member of the Animal Husbandry Board and also an advisor to Rani Shever and military farms. He was invited by Doordarshan (All India TV) talk shows, Krishi  Darshan programs Dhruv-mama0011and All India Radio. He worked in developing the local strain of layer birds to improve the production and the breed that he created were among the top three highest egg producing bird in the country during the Random sample test held at Hasarghatta,  Bangalore in the year 1971 to 1973. He worked as the Director for Health and Agriculture project at Rabbani School, Gwalior and reclaimed Usar land (waste land) with sulphuric acid overnight. More than 50 acres of land which was usar was reclaimed and plantations were done. The school received the “Indira Maitrey Award” for the achievements. He published a book “Saral Kheti” which has been given great reviews. The ones to be mentioned are by Dr. V.P. Shukla, Coordinator Extension Services, Jawahar Nehru Krishi University (M.P.), K. Das Rahi, Professor and Head of the Department, Chandera Shekhar Agriculture University.Data2 001 He founded an NGO “Lokarpan” in the year 1996 to work for the development of the  rural community. He believed that if opportunities are made available in the village the people will not migrate to the cities. He believed in the empowerment of women and hence worked for the upliftment of women. With the effort of Lokarpan emphasis was given to “Education of Girl Child” and  “Safe Motherhood and Child Survival”.  For his work in the field of Health, the Planning Commission in their report of Uttar Pradesh in their  Medical and Public Health report, (Chapter XI) in 2002 mentions about his NGOs work .

 “  Civil Society Intervention in the Health Sector of U.P.

12. In Uttar Pradesh NGOs seem to be playing a very significant role in the Health Sector of the State. Across the state in almost all the economic regions of the state NGOs have made some significant intervention. Some of the important NGOs which are active in the health sector are The Hunger Project, Lokarpan, Sakhi, Manav Seva Sansthan etc. It needs to be mentioned that NGO movement received a significant boost after the formation of SIFPSA (State Innovations in Family Planning Services Project Agency). Other important agencies which are making a significant contribution in terms of institutional financial support are CRS North India, CARE and Prema etc.

13. The impact of NGO intervention can be gauged from the fact that in the area where Lokarpan is working it is found that:

 Around 81% of the mothers have been provided Anti Natal Care (ANC) coverage . In the NGOs non-intervention area the coverage was only 54%.

 89% of the children were vaccinated. However, in the non-intervention area only 65.5% are vaccinated.

 Interestingly, the ratio between ANMs visit in the NGO and non-NGO area is 3.58: 2.27. The implications are very significant The ANM is a government functionary, her frequency of visit in the NGO area is found to be almost 35% better than the non-NGO area.”

 Relations of Lal Harvansh Singh

Lal Harvansh Singh was married to Shanta Singh, in Kulharia, Aara District of Bihar. His wife’s  relatives are in Thikana Paho and Khajurgaon in District Rae Barelli, Thikana Shahmau, District Sultanpur, Thikana Baroowa, District Gaya in Bihar, Royal family of Rathu, District Ranchi, Jharkhand.


Mohit Sengar (1963-1986)

He was blessed with three daughters and two sons. His eldest daughter Seema Singh married Ajay Pratap Singh, of Galgalah, District Unnao in Uttar Pradesh.  She is blessed with a son Rakshit P. Singh and daughter Richa Singh. His son Rohit Sengar married Ujjwala Gaur and is blessed with a son Dhruv Sengar and daughter Ishita Singh. His youngest daughter Sabina Singh married Derek  Smithwick and is blessed with a son Rohan Varqa Smithwick and daughter Dia Smithwick.  His sister Jaswant Kumari was married to Col. Sumer Singhji of Thikhana Chittora, District Tonk, Rajasthan. She was blessed with a son Col. Naval Singh Rajawat. His mother was from Thikana Baler, District Swaimadhopur, Rajasthan. His mothers relatives are in Thikana Gondishanker and Borkhedha in Madhya Pradesh, Thikana Kacchnavda, district Kota in Rajasthan, Thikana. Bharey in Uttar Pradesh and Nepalganj were his relatives. Lal Harvansh Singh passed away on November 6th, 1999 and was succeeded by Rohit Sengar who converted the Layer operation into Broiler Operation run under a private limited company M/s Sengar’s Agro Farm 002 Ltd. The family has been able to establish its operation at Malhausi and Kanpur. He has established a Rice Mill with a 1.5 ton/hour capacity and has been able to establish online business under Sengar’s Business Prodigies Pvt. Ltd. the comapy has entered into internet e-commerce website, bidding website and mobile and DTH recharge website

References (Part I)

[1]  As the district of Etawah was under the Government of Oudh from 1774 to 1801, so during the time of Sadan Singh the administration of the district was in the hands of Almas Ali Khan.

[2] Vide Gazetteer N.W.P. Vol. IV, Agra Division, Part I, Page, 300, 1876 Edition.

[3] Vide Gazetteer N.W.P. Vol. IV, Agra Division, Part I, Page, 317, 1876 Edition

[4] Vide Gazetteer N.W.P. Vol. IV, Agra Division, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition

[5] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 96, 1911 Edition.

[6] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 96, 1911 Edition.

[7] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition.

[8] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 99, 1911 Edition.

[9] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition.

[10] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 98, 1911 Edition.

[11] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 266, 1876 Edition. (also see U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 44, 1911 Edition).

[12] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[13] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[14] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[15] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[16] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 101, 1911 Edition.

[17] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[18] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition.

[19] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 327, 1876 Edition.

[20] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer Vol. IV, Part I, Page, 301, 1876 Edition.

[21] Vide Pedigree of the family, Appendix

[22] Vide Selt’s testimonial, dated March 31, 1865, Appendix

[23] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 152, 1911 Edition.

[24] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 152, 1911 Edition.

[25] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 153, 1911 Edition.

[26] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 153, 1911 Edition.

[27] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 153, 1911 Edition.

[28] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 154, 1911 Edition.

[29] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 155, 1911 Edition.

[30] Vide testimonial of Mr. G.E. Lance, officiating Collector of Etawah, dated October 27, 1958

[31]Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 155, 1911 Edition.

[32] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 157, 1911 Edition.

[33] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 65, 1911 Edition.

[34] Vide U.P. Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page, 171, 1911 Edition.

[35] Vide testimonial from C,B, Tharnhill Esq. Officiating Commissioner, dated August 20, 1859; Appendix Page,

[36] Vide testimonial from Mr. A.O. Hume O.B. Collector of Etawah, dated April 5, 1861: Appendix Page

[37] Vide testimonial from J.H. Balten, Esq., Judge, Cawnpore, dated March 4, 1858; Appendix Page

[38] Vide testimonial from Collector of Etawah, dated the 5th February, 1863; Appendix Page

[39] Vide Sunnuds, Appendix Pages

[40] Vide N.W.P. Gazetteer, Vol. IV, Part I, Page 301, 1876 Edition.

[41] Vide testimonial from Collector of Etawah, dated February 5, 1863; Appendix Page

[42] Vide testimonial from Magistrate, Etawah, dated January 23, 1878, Appendix Page

[43] Vide Appendix Page

References (Part II)

[1] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 101, 1917 Edition, and U.P. Gazetteer Vol. XXV. Page, 73, 1909 Edition.

[2] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 107, 1917 Edition.

[3] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 73, 1917 Edition.

[4] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 71, 1917 Edition.

[5] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 66, 1917 Edition.

[6] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 64, 1917 Edition.

[7] Vide List of Taluqdars, No. 14, Page,6, 1903 Edition.

[8] Vide Manual of Titles U,P, Page, 30, 1917 Edition.

[9] Vide U.P. Gazetteer Vol. XIX Page, 131, 1909 Edition

[10] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 78, 1917 Edition.

[11] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 33, 1917 Edition.

[12] Vide Manual of Titles, Page, 61, 1917 Edition.